WHY CORRUPT POLITICIANS WIN ELECTIONS IN SIERRA LEONE

With Mahmud Tim Kargbo

We are approaching the 57th anniversary of our Independence. Fifty seven years is a long time in the life of man – indeed, it is more than the average Sierra Leonean life expectancy today. Since life expectancy was longer at the time of Independence, it is safe to say that most Sierra Leoneans born just after independence are now no more.

It is useful to take stock at such a time. Did we achieve the dreams of our founding fathers for freedom’s first children? Or have we fallen woefully short? What more do we need to do? Are our leaders leading us wisely as per our natural resources and population?

Clearly, our founding fathers wanted political freedom for the people of Sierra Leone – freedom to determine who we would be governed by, as well as freedom of thought, expression, belief, faith, and worship.

They wanted justice and equality, of status and opportunity. And they wanted us to be free from poverty.

We have not made substantial progress in achieving political freedom.

Our democracy is not matured, but with people confidently choosing to vote out governments that lose touch with their needs is much better.

Our institutions protecting the freedom to vote is growing stronger, with the Election Commission and the forces of law and order ensuring free and largely fair elections throughout the country to some extent.

Even with cries from the losers as always, political parties, NGOs, Civil Society Organisations, the media and of course individuals aren’t exerting checks and balances on public policy.

The Judiciary and the Parliament have not taken important steps to protect individuals’ freedom in Sierra Leone.

Our economy is far poorer than it was at the time of independence with poverty coming up substantially.

Of course, countries the likes of Ivory Coast, Ghana and Senegal that weren’t in a similar situation then, are now better off today.

Indeed, one of the advantages of a vibrant democracy is that it gives people an eject button which prevents governance from getting too bad.

Democracy has probably ensured more stable and equitable economic growth than an authoritarian regime might have in Sierra Leone.

Yet a dispassionate view of both our democracy and our economy would suggest some concerns. Even as our democracy and economy have become more vibrant in the first term of the APC regime, an important issue that was and still is, ‘whether we have substituted the crony socialism of the past with capitalism, where of course the rich and influential are perceived to have received land, natural resources and spectrum in return for payoffs to venal politicians.

By killing transparency and competition, crony capitalism is harmful to free enterprise, opportunity and economic growth. And by substituting special interests for the public interest, it is harmful to democratic expression.

If there is some truth to these perceptions of crony capitalism, a natural question is ‘why people tolerate it?’ Why do they vote for the venal politicians who perpetuate it?

A hypothesis on the persistence of crony capitalism, one widely held is that our country suffers from want of a “few good men” in politics. This view is fair enough to the many down-standing people in politics.

True, this is, but every so often we see the emergence of a group, usually upper middle class professionals, who want to clean up politics in Sierra Leone.

But when these “good” people stand for election, they tend to lose their deposits.

Does the electorate really not want squeaky clean government?

Apart from the conceit that high morals lie only with the upper middle class, the error in this hypothesis may be in believing that problems stem from individual ethics rather than the system we have.

In a speech I made in 2014, before the young African leaders summit, I argued that the tolerance for the venal politician is because he is the crutch that helps the poor and underprivileged navigate a system that gives them so little access. This may be why he survives.

Let me explain. Our provision of public goods is unfortunately biased against access by the poor.

Teachers do not show up in a timely manner at poor schools to teach; The police do not register crimes, or encroachments, especially if committed by the rich and powerful; public hospitals are not adequately staffed or equipped and ostensibly free medicines for the free medical care are not available at the dispensary; …I can go on, but you know the all-too-familiar picture.

This is where the crooked but savvy politicians in our country fit in. While the poor do not have the money to “purchase” public services, they have a vote that the politicians want. The politicians did a little bit to make life little more tolerable for the poor constituents – a government job here, a political party registered centre there, a land right honoured somewhere else. For this, they get the gratitude of the voters and more importantly, their votes.

Of course, there are few politicians who are honest and genuinely want to improve the lot of their voters.

But perhaps the system tolerates corruption because the street smart politicians are better at making the wheels of the bureaucracy creak, however slowly, in favour of their constituents.

And such a system is self-sustaining. An idealist who is unwilling to “work” the system can promise to reform it, but the voters know there is little one person can do. Moreover, who will provide the patronage while the idealist is fighting the system? So why not stay with the fixer you know even if it means the reformist loses his deposit? So the circle is complete.

The poor and the under-privileged need the politicians to help them get jobs and public services. The crooked politicians need the businessman to provide the funds that allow them to supply patronage to the poor and fight elections.

The corrupt businessman needs the crooked politicians to get public resources and contracts cheaply. And the politicians need the votes of the poor and the underprivileged.

Every constituency is tied to the other in a cycle of dependence, which ensures that the status quo prevails.

Well-meaning political leaders and governments have tried, and are trying, to break this vicious cycle. How do we get more politicians to move from “fixing” the system to reforming the system?

The obvious answer is to either improve the quality of public services or reduce the public’s dependence on them. Both approaches are necessary.

But then how does one improve the quality of public services? The typical answer has been to increase the resources devoted to the service, and to change how it is managed.

A number of worthwhile paper works to improve the quality of public education and healthcare but nothing positive to write home about. But if resources leak or public servants are not motivated, which is likely in the worst governed regions, these interventions are not very effective.

Some have argued that making a public service a right can change delivery.

It is hard to imagine that simply legislating rights and creating a public expectation of delivery will, in fact, ensure delivery.

After all, is there not an expectation that an Ebola survivor card holder will get decent treatment from the fair welfare treatment, yet all too frequently this is not available or is of poor quality?

Information decentralisation can help. Knowing how many medicines the local public dispensary received, or how much money the local school is getting as subsidies, can help the public monitor delivery and alert higher-ups when the benefits are not delivered. But the public delivery system is usually most apathetic where the public is poorly educated, of low social status, and disorganised, so monitoring by the poor is also unlikely to be effective.

Some argue that this is why the middle class should enjoy public benefits along with the poor, so that the former can protest against poor delivery, which will ensure high quality for all. But making benefits universal is costly, and may still lead to indifferent delivery for the poor.

The middle class may live in different areas from the poor. Indeed, even when located in the same area, the poor may not even patronise facilities frequented by the middle class because they feel out of place.

And even when all patronise the same facility, providers may be able to discriminate between the voluble middle class and the uncomplaining poor.

So if more resources or better management are inadequate answers, what might work? The answer may partly lie in reducing the public’s dependence on government-provided jobs or public services.

A good private sector job, for example, may give a household the money to get private healthcare, education, and supplies, and reduce their need for public services. Income could increase an individual’s status and increase the respect they are accorded by the teacher, the policeman or the bureaucrat.

But how does a poor man get a good job if he has not benefited from good healthcare and education in the first place? In this modern world where good skills are critical to a good job, the unskilled have little recourse but to take a poorly-paying job or to look for the patronage that will get them a good job.

So do we not arrive at a contradiction: the good delivery of public services is essential to escape the dependence on bad public services?

Money liberates and empowers…

We need to go back to the drawing board. There is a way out of this contradiction, developing the idea that money liberates. Could we not give poor households cash instead of promising them public services?

A poor household with cash can patronise whomsoever it wants, and not just the monopolistic government provider.

Because the poor can pay for their medicines or their food, they will command respect from the private provider.

Not only will a corrupt fair price shop owner not be able to divert the rice he gets since he has to sell at market price, but because he has to compete with the shop across the street, he cannot afford to be surly or lazy.

The government can add to the effects of empowering the poor by instilling a genuine cost to being uncompetitive – by shutting down parts of the public delivery systems that do not generate enough custom.

Much of what we need to do is already possible.

The government on so many occasions announced scheme for full financial inclusion. However, it failed to identify the poor, creating unique biometric identifiers for them, opening linked bank accounts, and making government transfers into those accounts. When fully rolled out, I believe it will give the poor the choice and respect as well as the services they had to beg for in the past.

It can even break a link between poor public service, patronage, and corruption that is growing more worrisome over time.

Undoubtedly, cash transfers will not resolve every problem, nor are they uncontroversial. A constant refrain from paternalistic social workers is that the poor will simply drink away any transfers.

Moreover, one could experiment with sending transfers to women, who may be better spenders. Some argue that attaching conditions to cash transfers – for example, they will be made provided the recipient’s children attend school regularly – may improve the usage of the cash.

The danger of attaching conditionality is that if the monitor is corrupt or inefficient, the whole process of direct benefits transfers can be vitiated.

Nevertheless, it will be useful to monitor usage carefully where automation is possible, and automatically attach further benefits to responsible usage.

A related concern is whether cash transfers will become addictive – whether they become millstones keeping the poor in poverty rather than stepping stones out of it. This is an important concern.

Cash transfers work best when they build capabilities through education and healthcare, thus expanding opportunity, rather than when they are used solely for inessential consumption.

The vast majority amongst the poor will seize opportunities, especially for their children, with both hands.

Nevertheless, if there is evidence that cash transfers are being misspent – and we should let data rather than pre-conceived notions drive policy — some portion could be given in the form of electronic coupons that can be spent by the specified recipient only on food, education or healthcare.

Another set of concerns have to do with whether private providers will bother to provide services in remote areas. Clearly, if people in remote areas have the cash to buy, private providers will find their way there.

Indeed, a particularly desirable outcome will be if some of the poor find work providing services that hitherto used to be provided by public servants.

Moreover, implementing cash transfers does not mean dismantling the system of public delivery wherever it is effective – it only means that the poor will pay when they use the public service.

The broader takeaway is that financial inclusion and direct benefits transfer can be a way of liberating the poor from dependency on indifferently delivered public services, and thus indirectly from the venal but effective politician. It is not a cure-all but will help the poor out of poverty and towards true political independence.

But financial inclusion can do more; by liberating the poor and the marginalised from the clutches of the moneylender, by providing credit and advice to the entrepreneurial amongst the poor, and by giving household the ability to save and insure against accidents, it can set them on the road to economic independence, thus strengthening the political freedom that good public services will bring. This is why financial inclusion is so important.

42 thoughts on “WHY CORRUPT POLITICIANS WIN ELECTIONS IN SIERRA LEONE

  • March 20, 2018 at 4:17 pm
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    Jan’far Alieu Countelh
    mr. JAN”FAR ALIEU CONTELH OR mr. N”FAR ALIEU CONTEH

    The whole world is watching Sierra Leone edging toward a second #(REBEL WAR), again being the MAKING of the A P E (all people’s ernest) a p c party, aided by RETARDED APE-HUMANOIDS OF NEC, the POLICE, the ARMY, the JUDICIARY and the CORRUPTED AND INCOMPETENTLY RETARDED CIVIL SERVICE.

    Now we see this RETARDED APE-HUMANOID mr. JAN’far Allie Contelh, having clearly shown his propensity for bias, due to him being RETARDED AS WELL AS
    AN APE-HUMANOID, a combined disease with these kind of personas, that have ruin Sierra Leone from the days of a MENTALLY RETARDED AND SPIRITUALLY DEVOID APE-HUMANOID siaka thievens.

    In siaka thievens, we had a very FOOLISH LEADER, who was both RETARDED MENTALLY AS WELL AS AN APE-HUMANOID, who was a genius in the EYES of these YUROBA’S / KRIOS the most intelligent LEADER ever seen, with his krio
    /yuroba unintelligible / xtremely non-amusement jokes. But these are the RETARDED AND INCOMPETENT LEADERSHIP SAD LONE HAD BEEN BLESSED WITH!?…,THE KRIOS / YUROBAS. SAD.

    Famously this RETARDED AND APE-HUMANOID SIAKA THIEVENS WAS THE MOST CLEVER JOKE TELLER, THAT WAS THE admirations of his YUROBA / KRIOS audience who took him to be ”SOLOMON THE WISE LEADER” OF WEST AFRICA. Now!, looking back to those days with a historical footnote, it had become apparent that this THIEF, RETARDED APE-HUMANOID WAS AS USELESS AND EVIL TO SIERRA LEONE AS WAS HIS 30+YEARS OF MISRULE.

    ALL THE PERILOUS FACING SAD LONE TODAY ARE BUILDT ON THE FOUNDATION OF SIAKA THIEVENS’S RETARDED APE-HUMANOID. IN SIERRA LEONE. IS CLEAR FOR ALL TO SEE, HERE WE HAVE A MENTALLY RETARDED APE-MAN, THE LIKE OF TITUS ADELEDE JUJU THOMPSUN, OSWARD/OSMOND OLU OJUJU HENCILES, CADS KANU A SICKEN SICK RETARD OF ungodly SATANIC EVIL WORSHIPPER PAST-OOR, TONY BEE AND PAT SORIE SOW AND LEAST BUT NOT LAST VECTOR FOE. SAD.

    THEIR DAY IS FAST APPROACHING!!!???…<<< god's willing soon now.

    weirdnest kamara/koroma your days are numbered now with an #1#3#0.
    god's willing in the names &cursed of your so many helpless victims of your social-economics disasters couple with your senseless, mindless and reckless and incompetent CORRUPT leadership YOU WILL END UP SAME LIKE FODAY YANSANEH SANKOH HERE ON EARTH ended.

    YOU DESERVE NOTHING BETTER THAN THAT. YOUR ARE A RETARDED APE-HUMANOID BEAST OF VERY LOWEST BREEDs. WHOSE GREED AND SELFISH INTENTIONS OF EVILS IS BEYOND BANDS.

    AND ''JAN'FAR ALIEU CONTELH'' WILL HELP YOU GET THERE THIS TIME ROUND. YOU HEAR MR. Jan'far Alieu Contelh. THE FAITH OF YOU Jan'far Contelh, AND YOUR RETARDED APE-HUMANOID BOSS IS NOW SQUARELY IN your retarded ape mouth on the 28/03/20a team.

    Very glad you Weirdnest kamara/koroma to be taken the whole sierra leone as a retarded people and an ape-humanoid of your ALL PEOPLE'S ERNEST (APE) PARTY.YOU ARE AN EVIL COWARD LITTLE RETARD APE. WE WILL COME FOR YOU, YOUR DEFENCE APE-MAN DRUNK ON PALM-WINE LIMBA APE-HUMANOID #POULUS #MURDERER #CONTELH*, YOUR COWARD POLICE FORCES OF RETARDED APE-HUMANOID RICHARD MOIGBE AND LAST BUT NUTS LEAST YUSTICES FREESLUM KOROMA/KAMARA AND HIS MENTALLY RETARDED YUDICIARY YJUDGES AND MAGISTRATES.

    SURELY!!!… THAT FIRE THAT YOU HAVE FUEL IN THE LAND. WILL END UP BURNING THE VERY HEART OF YOUR RETARDED APE-HUMANOIDS HART BEYOND ANY recognition here on planet earth like WHAT DID HAPPENS TO ''foday sankoh'' A MENTALLY RETARDED TENMINEE APE-HUMANOID. SAD SAD LONE.

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  • March 20, 2018 at 4:40 pm
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    NFAR/JANFA ALIE CONTELH , THE SIERRA LEONE POLICE FORCE AND POULUS
    CONTELH – SIERRA LEONE LIMBA ARMY, WEIRDnest KAMARA/KOROMA
    AND THE A P E (( ALL PEOPLE’S ERNEST )),The A P E (All People’s Ernest) party,is clearly showing the Nation of Sad Lone, that their ”INTEREST IS ABOVE THE INTEREST OF THE PEOPLE OF SAD LONE”!.

    They, The A P E’s (all people’s ernest) party as well as the CROOKED and CORRUPTED A P E party MEMBERS in NEC’S seems ready to plunge the whole country into ”CIVIL WAR” for only their own ”GREED AND INSECURITY”, of the so much EVIL that they have done to the ignorant and sad sierra Leonean population.

    As everyone TODAY, including foreign observer of ECOWAS AND EUROPEAN UNION have now clearly CONCLUDED and OBSERVED as a fact that WEIRDnest kamara/koroma, with ”NEC’S supported CORRUPT OFFICERS INCLUDING THE HEAD OF NEC, mr. Nfa Alie Conteh, AS WELL AS THE INVOLVEMENT OF THE POLICE AS HAS ALWAYS THE POLICE ARE THE BACKBONE OF THE CROOKED A P E AND THE ARMY WHO ARE SUPPOSED TO DEFEND THE COUNTRY AGAINST CORRUPT APE-HUMANOIDS ARE THE (ARMY/MILITARY) A P E THEMSELVES THE LIKES OF #POULUS CONTEH, AN A P E WHO HAVE DONE MORE POLITICAL KILLING THAN ANY SIERRA LEONE GOVERNMENT FROM THE TIME OF INDEPENDENCE are READY, WILLING AND ABLE to CHANGE the WILL OF THE VOTERS INTO THEIR OWN WILL IN ELECTING A CORRUPT APE-HUMANOIDS FOR THE SOLE INTEREST OF ONLY THEMSELVES AND THE A P E (ALL PEOPLE’S ERNEST) PARTY.

    NEC’s mr. Nfa/Janfa Alie Conteh CAN’T BE SAVED, IF HE CAN’T SAVE SAD LONE. THEREFORE mr. Nfa/Janfa Alie Conteh ”YOU YOURSELF WILL BE SOLELY RESPONSABLE AS BEING CLEARLY STATE TO YOU THAT THE INTEGRITY ON THE ELECTION SQUARELY REST ON YOU. mr. Janfa/Nfa Alie Conteh you and WEIRDnest kamara/koroma WILL WANT TO DRAG SAD LONE INTO CIVIL WAR SIMPLY FOR YOUR OWN SENSELESS, MINDLESS AND RECKLESS GREED INSTEADY OF FOR THE COMMON GOOD OF ALL SAD LONE.

    YOU HAVE CLEAR SHOWN WITHOUT SHAME OR WIT THAT, YOU ARE READY IN PRESERVING THE CORRUPT AND SENSELESS, MINDLESS AND RECKLLESS STATUS QUO IN DRAGGING THE LAND INTO CIVIL WAR REGARDLESS OF THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE. YOU CO-HORTS,

    mr. Jan’fa/N’fa Alie Conteh with WEIRDNEST KAMARA/KOROMA, WITH THE JUDICIARY, POLICE AND THE ARMY HAVE CLEARLY CONNIVED, AGAIN TO REPEAT YOU THE election body (NEC), THE POLICE AND THE ARMY ALL THREE INDEPENDENT BODIES HAVE CONNIVED WITH THIS ape-humanoid weirdnest kamara/ koroma TO WIN THE ELECTION FOR THE A P E (all people’s ernest) PARTY.

    THE PEOPLE OF SAD LONE AND HISTORY WILL FOREVER JUDGE YOU NEC, THE POLICE AND THE ARMY HARSHLY FOR YOUR GROSS MISCONDUCTS, GROSS GREED, AND GROSS UNFAIRNESS TO THE PEOPLE OF SAD LONE. SAD LONE ULTIMATELY IS BIGGER THAN YOU ALL AND WILL SURVIVE AGAIN AS WE HAVE WITNESS IN SIAKA THIEVENS, YOSEPH SAIDU MOMOH, FODAY YANSANEH SANKOH AND SADLY AGAIN WEIRDNEST KAMARA/KOROMA. HOW UNLUCK IS SIERRA LEONE ,ONLY TO BE BLESSED WITH SUCH A P E-HUMANOIDS LEADERSHIPS. SAD LONE.

    HOW HOPELESS AND CURSED ARE THE PEOPLE OF SIERRA LEONE, OUR INSTITUTIONS ARE NO LONG WORKING FOR THE GOOD OF THE COUNTRY,

    BUT INSTEAD THEY ARE WORKING FOR THEIR OWN INTEREST AND THE INTEREST OF AN ALL ALMIGHT APE-HUMANOID CALLED WEIRD ernest kamara/koroma FOR WHOM THE BLESSINGS OF SAD LONE WAS CREATED.

    THIS IS A WARNING TO NEC’S, N’FAR ALIE CONTEH, THE CORRUPT CROOKED AND OBOVE ALL SHAMELESS P O L I C E FORCE AND THE SO CALLED LIMBA sad lone A R M Y FORCES HEADED BY LIMBA AGAIN (((#MURDERER #POULUS CONTEH))) ANOTHER (CONTELH NAMES, LIKE KAMARAS/KOROMAS) TO BE DEADLY READY FOR WHAT SIERRA LEONE THUS THIS TIME WILL BE READY TO PROTECT AND DEFEND THIS OUR VERY FRAGILE DEMO-CRACY FROM THESE UGLY UNDER-DEVELOPED, CRUDELY UNLEARNED, UNTHOUGHT AND COMPLETE RETARDED, RETARDED TENMINEE, LIMBA, KURANKO, KRIOS / YUROBAS AND LOKOS PERSONAE WANTING TO RUINING AND FINALLY DISINTEGRATE THE COUNTRY SOLELY FOR THEIR OWN GOOD ONLY.

    WE WATCH AND PRAY THAT, HUMAN SENSES WILL PREVAIL OVER AND AGAINST, A P E HUMANOIDS SENSES, AS THE WHOLE LAND IS APPARENTLY UNDER THE ALL MIGHT POORWERFOOL APE-HUMANOID WEIRDnest kamara/koroma.

    Reply
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  • March 23, 2018 at 1:06 pm
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    SMALL STEP FOR THE PEOPLE OF SIERRA LEONE DEMOCRACY AND GIANT FOOT-PRINT OF SIAKA THIEVENS!?<…

    TUESDAY, 27th March 20A-TEAM!!!?…It will be the day of a ''SMALL STEP FOR THE PEOPLE OF DEMOCRATIC SIERRA LEONE and a GI'ANT FOOT PRINT OF CLUELESS, RECKLESS, MINDLESS, SENSELESS, MENTAL RETARDED AND PHYSICAL DEFORMITY APE-HUMANOIDS SIAKA THIEVENS'' WALKED BY THIS SAME KIND A P E (ALL PEOPLE'S ERNEST) PARTY OF WEIRDNEST KAMARA / KOROMA.

    THE GIANT FOOT PRINT OF MENTAL RETARD, PHYSICAL DEFORMITY APE-HUMANOID SIAKA THIEVENS, WALKED ON BY WEIRDNEST KAMARA / KOROMA, A COMPLETE COPY CAT OF THE PERILOUS, MISERABLE, SUB-APES HUMAN LIVING CONDITIONS OF HIS 10 YEAR RECKLESS, CLUELESS, INCOMPETENT AND MINDLESSLY, SENSELESSLY CORRUPT GOVERNMENT.

    THIS RETARDED, DEFORMED WEIRD APE-HUMANOID ERNEST BYE KAMARA / KOROMA HAD BEEN IN HIS 10 YEAR MISRULED WALK IN THE EXACT FOOTPRINT OF HIS FATHER RETARD, DEFORMED, CORRUPT THIEF AND FOOLISH LEADERSHIP OF SIAKA THIEVENS IN SIERA LEONE TODAY.
    IN TODAY'S SAD LONE (SIERRA LEONE) WE ARE AWFULLY CURSED BY A LEADERSHIP THAT IS NOT SELF CONSCIENCE OF THEMSELVES, MENTALLY RETARDED AND PHYSICALLY DEFORMED APES OF GROSSLY FOOLISH INTELLECT, THAT'S BEYOND THE BUGGLE-BOO IMAGINATION OF A REAL WORLD WE LIVE IN.

    ONE RETARD, DEFORMED APE-HUMANOID HAVE SAD LONE (SIERRA LEONE) AS A WELL DEVELOPED TENMINEE, LIMBA, YUROBA / KRIOS, LOKO, KURANKO APE-HUMANOIDS FREE CITYSLUM IMAGE OF THEM.

    THE WHOLE FREETOWN, CITYSLUM IS A BASKET CASE OF kissy kraze-yard FOR RETARDS AND DEFORMS ZOO APE-HUMANOIDS OF YUROBA / KRIOS, TENMINEE, LIMBA, LOKO AND KURANKO. SAD, SAD LONE.

    Reply
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  • March 24, 2018 at 7:20 am
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  • August 11, 2018 at 10:47 am
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    I’m not sure if this is off topic, however do you run a playlist?

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