Mahmud Tim Kargbo

Potentially, stakeholders in Sierra Leone active in incumbent political parties ruled by authoritarian leaders like former President Ernest Bai Koroma should acquire a thorough understanding of potential “succession dilemmas” in order to be geared up to react to a variety of political risk scenarios which could affect their interests.

This article explores why former President Koroma’s regime type was more exposed to succession risks and lines out the potential negative impact which succession struggles may have on the political and business environment.

The former APC led government of President Koroma was one party where succession issues have been venomous and might pose a serious political risk in the near future just as it happened during his era. The country’s importance derives from its wealth in natural resources, notably iron ore, diamond, Gold, Rutile, Timber, Bauxite, Titanium, Ilmenite and recently oil and gas etc and its critical financial role for the West’s engagement in supporting regimes that are making it easy for them to loot our wealth successfully in collaboration with rogue leaders.


In the past ten years, President Koroma firmly ruled Sierra Leone in an authoritarian manner by narrowing the political landscape and made himself bigger.

At the same time, the recent history of the “After You Na You” the “More Time” and “Chairman and Leader for Life” campaigns quite clearly exemplified the political risks that succession issues in fake democratic systems might entail. Already in 2015, then president Koroma through his irresponsible APC Youth Wing attempted to extend his democratic mandate, and thus contributed to a hostile climate in the country. Later, his handpicked successor Mr.

Samura Mathew Wilson Kamara faced a violent internal uprising caused by popular discontent as a result of nepotism and corruption and was successfully sabotaged by former President Koroma himself as he ensured all critical political players within the party that has the required knowledge and experience for the winning of the APC in the previous elections were fired or sidelined during the campaign process.

If we are to properly understand the implications of the succession issue for the political future of our country, it is crucial to look at what really characterises his regime type, namely authoritarian power mechanisms. Despite some formal legal-rational and bureaucratic structures, all power was derived directly from former President Koroma.

This was a leader that earned his legitimacy not from ideology and even less from democratic processes, but rather from a patriarchic cult of personality and effective patronage networks. In his patronage networks, then President Koroma exercised power by appointing people close to him, family and friends, to official positions in key ministries, state companies, Agencies or sovereign wealth funds, typically surrounding the Rutile, discovered oil, Diamond, Iron Ore or Bauxite industry, which they can then use to advance his interests at the expense of the nation. Nepotism, corruption, sycophancy, bootlicking and massive poverty were pervasive in his regime.

In exchange, privileged elite groupings supported his presidency, often by securing votes in their constituency in the form of foundations and support groups and opposing anyone who is threatening the president’s authority.

Administrative and economic structure were built on the loyalty and dependencies of personal networks woven around former President Koroma.

Moreover, as the leader, he was ready to use greed and rivalry within the elites to play different groups off against each other and to thereby strengthen his own position.

Former President Koroma was a proven master of balancing the interests of different elite groups in the country. At the same time, the balance of power within his regime was extremely precarious given that it hinged on the vitality and survival of a single leader. This made the question of succession to the then autocratic leader in his pseudo democratic regime such a fundamental issue.

With no democratic institutions and established rules in place to secure a transparent and accountable transition of power from one elected government leader to the next, the risk of violent revolution or elite power struggles was always present in his pseudo democratic regime.


Former President Koroma as an authoritarian leader was to a certain extent aware that his way of ruling within the APC Party and the country at large was based on favours and fear and that when fear is gone, there might be repercussions. One important goal for him was to secure favourable terms for himself and relatives.

A very obvious succession strategy was the clear designation of a hand-picked successor by himself. But, this is not a very popular strategy either. So he made a safe deal with the then main opposition SLPP Party leader.

One reason for the then President reluctance to ensure his party succeed him in governance might be what Robbins Burling called the “succession dilemma” in his book Passage of Power published in 1974.

According to this concept, an authoritarian leader will be reluctant to nominate a successor while he is still fit enough to rule because if he does, this would weaken his own position.

Elites would start responding to the second man, anticipating the imminent end of the incumbent. Furthermore, political enemies of the incumbent would rally around the second in command hoping to oust the former.

The leader in waiting might see his chance come to shorten the wait.


It is always the case when an autocratic president leaves the stage and there is no clearly designated successor, or the incumbent picked someone who is unacceptable to powerful forces within the elite, particularly if they believe that the new leader will not honor the established patronage arrangements, there will be negotiations about a successor between the different elite groupings.

In these negotiations, elite factions rally around potential successors, hoping to end up on the winning side. Negotiations can appear to be successful openly, but inwardly they are not and it gave clean opportunities for the very deceitful and autocratic former President Koroma to succeed in his dangerous mission of dishonesty against political party comrades.

In some instances, however, existing political cleavages between elite groups bear the risk of future infighting.

In the APC currently, the cleavage runs right between family and friends of former President Koroma.

A faction of the rogue beneficiaries from the most important elite faction within the APC family surrounding Ernest Bai Koroma’s deceitful actions, others, mainly represents the new idea of reforming the party to meet with the test of time, while long-time friends of Ernest Bai Koroma make up the old guard, mostly found in high administration offices during his corrupt regime.

The latter are supported by other groups, particularly from the rationally minded youth and the oppressed majority during his regime, who favour genuine political party reforms from outside Ernest Bai Koroma and family.

These two main elite factions have differing views of APC future. While the business elite favours further economic and hence, political opening of the country to win genuine investors and move the country forward concretely, the old guard supports a more cautious approach.

Succession struggles threaten foreign stakeholders in two ways. Elite infighting after the end of a leader causes political volatility and unpredictability and bears the risk of violent clashes between the supporters of opposing factions.

Moreover, succession may result in a new leadership that often goes hand in hand with a transformation of the overall elite structure. Foreign stakeholders must be careful not to become entangled in the succession struggle and be prepared to face a new leadership.

Stakeholders with a good relationship to the former leader, for instance, or those suspicious of having supported the losing side in the struggle might be subject to reprisals.

A thorough analysis of our political landscape can help making informed decisions based on various succession scenarios.


  • August 3, 2018 at 4:45 pm

    WordPress is the ideal platform to Digital Marketingcreate a site. WordPress isn’t just a CMS (content management system) it is also a way of earning a living for a good deal of people. WordPress has brought the best method to begin a business as affiliate marketing to the clients.

  • August 4, 2018 at 4:27 am

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  • August 4, 2018 at 5:00 am

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  • August 4, 2018 at 6:04 am

    THE ONLY OBSTACLE IS YOU STOPPING YOURSELF. Online affiliate marketing is a technique utilized by publishers and internet platforms in each enterprise. It’s a business that requires self-motivation and focus. It is a broad base from which an endless variety of methods, tools and platforms can be used. It allows you to recommend services and products from other companies and be paid a commission if someone buys the product as the result of your recommendation. If you are unfamiliar with affiliate marketing or are uncertain of the way that it works, continue reading. There are a lot of things that you ought to be mindful of prior to heading into affiliate advertising. It is here to stay. “it is an excellent way to generate an income from online advertising, regardless of the size of your company,” she says. Affiliate marketing, undoubtedly, is big. If you’re an affiliate, then do everything you could to maintain relationships and permit the merchant lead the charge when it’s to do with creating services and products. Successful affiliates know they need to hustle each day. For instance, three or four effective affiliates that focus on search engine optimization can supply you with as much business as countless mediocre sites, especially if they’re not quite the perfect fit for your demographic and merchandise.

  • August 4, 2018 at 6:06 am

    BE GRATEFUL EVEN FOR THINGS YOU DON’T HAVE YET, AS THEY WILL MANIFEST SOONER. Amazon won’t begin reviewing your website till you have three or more sales within 180 days. Amazon presents many promotional tools Motivation to make more content. Amazon enables you to sell certain things on your site to generate money. When the things are arranged for, Amazon will manage the transport procedure. Amazon is among my favorite affiliate programs because of broad variety of products they provide. Amazon serves individuals from all around the world. To make money for a site owner you have to first register with Amazon or another affiliate programs. Internet affiliate marketing has ever been dogged by shady behavior. It’s useful way to earn some extra income if you’ve got a own site (or) website. The typical affiliate marketing is quite tough and difficult to comprehend. Amazon has turned into the most remarkable e-commerce brand on the planet and, whatever the low commissions, you could always promote a great deal of stuff and get many channels of earning. Amazon also provides a comprehensive commission program. Amazon runs the largest affiliate promoting scheme, and its trusted household name, good standing and virtually limitless source of goods make it a fantastic alternative. Amazon is a pioneer in the web, there’s little doubt about it. Amazon suggests that you have to get a website where it is possible to promote the Affiliate products and Banners. Amazon pays you a proportion of what it is that they buy for the subsequent 24 hours.

  • August 4, 2018 at 6:56 am

    1 YEAR = 365 REASONS TO BE GRATEFUL THEY SAID YOU CAN’T. If you want to go started in online affiliate marketing, you may want to experiment on a tiny scale. Internet affiliate marketing has given a new dimension to the internet business arena. It is a great way for individuals to make money online. Begin with gathering the perfect information you’re in a position to discover about affiliate internet marketing and absorbing it. To start with, you’ve got to learn everything possible about what’s affiliate marketing the way that it works. Internet affiliate marketing has resulted in the development of numerous online businesses and Internet marketers. It is the custom of”suggesting” goods or services. If you’re in online affiliate marketing, here is a fast reference of a few of the more widespread phrases utilized together with affiliate marketing. The site is professional and simple to navigate. Together with the traffic your site draws, potential customers might want to know about how much money the site brings in monthly. Building your own internet dating website is an excellent way to earn another income on the internet. If you feel as though your site may need DDOS protection, or in case you just would love to test it out, I urge Cloudflare. You may discover that I avoid using specific company and website names. So if you’re still convinced that you’re good with a new site, do proceed.

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